The Building Program is the definitive written and graphical statement ofthe needs of the project upon which the design of the project is based and its success judged. Starting with the raw space needs data developed with the Facilities Assessment Model, and working closely with the client, Facilities Planning develops a detailed listing of all functional and physical needs of each space in the project and other pertinent information necessary to comprehensively describe the project. This listing includes:
Each space is usually represented with a scale drawing showing all of the components to verify functionality and the space allocation made earlier in the process. The Building Program is the basis of the Project Design described later in this section. Although it is preferable for the program to be prepared by Facilities Planning staff, it is not uncommon for the Building Program to be developed by the architect selected for the project as part of their pre-design services. This is due to in-house staffing constraints, a compressed time frame for completing this activity, or special expertise required for the project that is not available from in-house staff.
At this point in the process, a project manager is assigned from Facilities Planning staff. The project manager serves as the single point of contact with the client and coordinates the involvement of all other parties involved in the project.
The final step in preparing the Building Program is to obtain approval from the client, client’s department(s), client’s college(s) or administrative division, university administration, and the Board of Regents.
Following completion of the Building Program, and complying with the Board of Regents Procedural Guide, Facilities Planning administers the selection of the projectarchitect. An advertisement is placed in the Des Moines Register and the Iowa Chapter of the American Institute of Architects is notified of the university's readiness to receive letters of interest and qualification materials from firms interested in providing design services for the project. From the responses, the architect selection committee chooses a short-list of firms (usually three to five) that have the best experience and ability for further consideration.
The architect selection committee interviews and evaluates each of the short-list firms and the top three ranked firms, in rank order, are forwarded to the President for his consideration. The President reviews the summary of the committee’s deliberations (prepared by the project manager) and selects a single firm for recommendation to the Board of Regents and fee negotiations.
The project manager conducts fee negotiations with the recommended firm based on the scope of services both implicit and explicit in the Building Program. The fee negotiations are based on the firm’s understanding and acceptance of the Building Program. If the project manager is unable to negotiate an appropriate fee, negotiations are ended with that firm and begun with the next ranked firm.
The university recommended firm is submitted to the Board of Regents for formal selection and approval of the negotiated fee. Upon approval, an Agreement is written on the Board of Regents Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect. The architect is responsible for carrying out the provisions of the Agreement with considerable input from, review by, and communication with the project's planning committee and with oversight and approval of the project manager.
The architect's basic services are carried out in five phases as described later in this report; (1) Schematic Design, (2) Design Development, (3) Construction Documents, (4) Bidding, and (5) Construction Administration. The project manager is the principal individual responsible for the procedures and activities associated with the agreement.
CONSTRUCTION DELIVERY METHOD
construction delivery METHOD
Early in the design phase, decisions must be made on the delivery system that will be utilized to construct the planned facility. Generally, the delivery systems that are available to public projects in Iowa utilize procurement by the conventional design-bid-build process and are either (1.) contracted with a single prime contract or (2.) multiple prime contracts.
An alternative to the conventional procurement method, which has been infrequently used by ISU, is design-build. This method of procurement is at its greatest advantage when the owner can award the design-build contract on factors other than cost, i.e. quality of design. In accordance with State of Iowa bidding requirements, the university must contract with the “lowest responsible bidder”, thereby negating the possibility of awarding to the best design-for-the-cost. Under these requirements, it is difficult to develop a set of project requirements that ensure the quality of the low bid design will meet the university’s needs.
The majority of ISU projects have been and will continue to be constructed using the approach that has been the norm for public projects: conventional design-bid-build with single prime contracting. Each of the three phases is conducted sequentially with each phase being completed before the next phase begins. Award is made to a single general contractor who then contracts with subcontractors as necessary. The general contractor provides a single source of contractual responsibility to ISU.
When multiple prime contracting is used, the construction project is broken down into multiple packages, normally by trade or sometimes by project stage, and each package is bid separately. The work of these multiple packages must then be coordinated to provide the finished project. Depending on the complexity and size of the project, the multiple prime contractors are either managed by Facilities Planning construction managers or an agency type construction management consultant is hired as a professional for a fee to assist in the management of the project.
There are three circumstances that lend themselves to the use of multiple prime contracting:
It is important to note that even on projects where the major portion of the construction is a single prime general contract, most ISU projects include multiple prime contractors. In addition to the construction contract, the university often utilizes separate contractors for hazardous material abatement, laboratory casework, utility extensions, telecommunications wiring, and sometimes for furniture installation. The work of these contractors is coordinated by the construction manager in cooperation with other university entities such as Central Stores, Purchasing, Telecommunications, and Utilities.
The decision on which delivery system to use is made by Facilities Planning with input from the client, architect, and consultants, Associate Vice President for Facilities, and other appropriate university parties. This decision is made based on a number of factors including the individual characteristics of the project, the project size, the required construction schedule, and the current state of the construction market in Iowa.When the decision is made to hire a construction management consultant, the selection is based on professional qualifications. A selection process similar to the Architect Selection Process described earlier is utilized. Once a selection has been made, the fees and reimbursable expenses are negotiated and an agreement is executed. When a construction management consultant is utilized, it is preferable for them to be included in the planning process as early as possible. If they are included from the beginning of design, they can be involved in pre-construction cost estimating, value engineering, and constructibility analysis with the goal of optimizing the balance between construction cost, construction quality, and construction schedule. This allows the university to take advantage of their knowledge of construction means and methods, current material and labor costs, material availability, industry workload, etc. during the preparation of contract documents and the formulation of bid packages for competitive bids.
The focus of this step in the process is the development of an acceptablefunctional solution to the requirements of the building program with an exterior design solution that is compatible with the neighboring buildings and the campus as a whole. The successful development of these items is required within the parameters of the established time line and project budget.
The project manager coordinates the activities of the clients, architects, and university staff, as they are involved with the development of the capital project during the design. Progress sets are formally received, distributed, and reviewed by these groups as they are issued at the completion of schematic design, design development, and during the development of the contract documents. Various Facilities Planning staff participate in the Project Review Board that reviews proposed project designs at designated project milestones. A construction manager will be assigned as early as possible in the process to take advantage of their experience and expertise early enough in the process to effect change when necessary.
As Facilities Planning reviews project documents, the focus is on items such as the following:
As the project approaches the Bidding and Construction Phase, the construction manager becomes an active member of the Planning Committee. The construction manager provides valuable input as the contract documents are finalized and the project logistics are developed. It is important that the construction manager become familiar with the thought processes that went into the design of the project and with the goals and objectives of the project. This also allows them to become familiar with the project client and the project consultants
This is the first phase of the Basic Services provided by the architect tothe project. Development during this phase involves meetings with the Planning Committee and other university representatives to study and analyze the project requirements. From these meetings and the Building Program, the architect prepares schematic design studies consisting of drawings and other documents illustrating the scale and relationship of project components, including such considerations of structure and materials as may be appropriate at this time. The objective at this stage is to clarify the Building Program, explore the most promising alternative design solutions, and provide a reasonable basis for analyzing the cost of the project. The architect is expected to continue generating studies until they arrive at a clearly defined, feasible concept that meets the project requirements and is approved by the project manager.
Typical documentation during this phase includes:
The final step in schematic design is to obtain formal client approval. A formal university review is made after a single schematic design has been selected by the Planning Committee. This submittal is reviewed in detail by the Planning Committee, representatives of the client departments not on the committee, other university departments involved in the maintenance and operation of facilities, and the university administration, including the President. Upon approval by this group, a presentation is made to the Board of Regents by the architect.
After the schematic submittal has been approved, the architect is notified in writing and given permission to proceed to Design Development.
During design development, the design team works out a clear,coordinated description of all aspects of the design. This typically includes fully developed floor plans, sections, exterior elevations, and for particular areas or aspects of the building, interior elevations, reflected ceiling plans, wall sections, and key details. These items are worked out at a scale that minimizes the possibility of major modifications during the construction documents phase. These drawings become the basis for the construction documents that follow. The basic mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems are also accurately defined if not fully drawn. All major issues that could cause significant restudy during the construction documents phase should be resolved before the end of the design development phase.
During the preparation of the design development documents, the architect will meet with the Planning Committee and other university departments involved in the maintenance and operation of facilities to determine the specific and detailed requirements of all the spaces in the proposed building and surrounding site requirements.
Typical documentation during this phase includes:
A formal university review is made after the design development documents have been presented to the Planning Committee. The Planning Committee reviews this submittal in detail, as well as representatives of the client departments not on the committee and other university departments involved in the maintenance of facilities. A presentation to the Board of Regents by the architect is required at this stage in the progress of the work unless this presentation was waived by the Board of Regents at the time of the schematic presentation.
After the design development submittal has been approved, the architect is notified in writing and given permission to proceed to the Construction Documents Phase.
The construction documents phase includes the preparation of workingdrawings and specifications describing in technical detail the construction contract work to be done. This includes the materials, equipment, workmanship, and finishes required for architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical work, and related site work, utility connections, and special equipment. The architect is responsible for developing the technical specifications and drawings necessary for relaying this information. During this development it may be necessary for the architect to obtain additional information from the client departments or others involved with facilities on campus. All communication between the architect and these groups is coordinated through the project manager to insure that all interested parties are satisfied with the documents. Any adjustments to previous construction estimates are also reported and addressed appropriately, which may include re-design or development of bidding alternates. During the construction documents phase, any changes from the approved design development documents are to be made only with the project manager’s approval. If the project manager orders any major revisions in the construction documents, which are inconsistent with the previous approvals and instructions, the architect is entitled to additional compensation to effect the changes.
A formal university review is made at the completion of the construction documents phase. The Planning Committee and other university departments involved in the maintenance and maintenance of facilities review this submittal in detail. Upon approval of this submittal, the architect is instructed to submit one set to the State Building Code Division of the Iowa Department of Public Safety for approval and the documents are issued for bid. Final changes and corrections are made in documents prior to bidding.